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Ethiopia Government


Politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the prime minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. The judiciary is more or less independent of the executive and the legislature.

The president is elected by the House of People's Representatives for a six-year term. The prime minister is designated by the party in power following legislative elections. The Council of Ministers, according to the 1995 constitution, is comprised by the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister, various Ministers and other members as determined and approved by the House of People's Representatives.

The Federal Parliamentary Assembly has two chambers the Council of People's Representatives (Yehizbtewekayoch Mekir Bet) with 547 members, elected for five-year terms in single-seat constituencies; and the Council of the Federation (Yefedereshn Mekir Bet) with 110 members, one for each nationality, and one additional representative for each one million of its population, designated by the regional councils, which may elect them themselves or through popular elections.

Many opposition parties are represented in the Ethiopia Parliament where representatives from Oromia state hold the most positions and representatives from the Amhara State hold the second most position, in correlation with the population order of the corresponding states. Various opposition parties – including the United Ethiopian Democratic Forces, United Ethiopian Democratic Party-Medhin Party, Somali People's Democratic Party, EDL, Gambela People's Democratic Movement, All Ethiopian Unity Party, Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement, Oromo People's Congress, and the Benishangul-Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front – hold many positions in the parliament.

The president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council to the House of People's Representatives for appointment. In May 2007, the Ethiopian Federal courts received “Technology in Government in Africa” (TIGA) Awards that is provided by Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the Canadian e-Policy Resource Centre (CePRC). The courts received the awards for their provision of efficient service for the public through the use of modern Information Communication Technologies (ICT). The award is given in four categories and the Addis Ababa Revenue Agency and the Ethiopian Federal courts were given special awards for their activities on integrated revenue collection and courts reform program respectively.


Country name
conventional long form Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form Ethiopia
local long form Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form Ityop'iya
former Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
abbreviation FDRE

Government type
federal republic

name Addis Ababa
geographic coordinates 9 02 N, 38 42 E
time difference UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)

oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday
National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)

ratified 8 December 1994, effective 22 August 1995

Legal system
based on civil law; currently transitional mix of national and regional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

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